Fundamentals of Surveying

Tape Measurements

Leveling

Angles and Directions

Transits and Theodolites

Traverse

Highway Curves

Topographic Surveys

Control Surveys

Construction Surveys

Hydrographic Surveys

Land Surveys

Photogrammetry

Stadia Measurement

$D = \dfrac{f}{i}s \cos \theta + (f + c)$

Subtense Bar

$D = \cot (\frac{1}{2}\theta)$

Tape Measurement

$TD = MD \pm Error$

Reduction to sea level

$\Delta D = D\left( \dfrac{h^2}{R^2} - \dfrac{h}{R} \right)$

Effect of curvature and refraction

$h_{cr} = 0.0675K^2$